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  • PURPOSE: To describe and analyse experiences of living with lipedema. Methods: Individual, semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 12 women diagnosed with lipedema and analysed by qualitative content analysis utilizing an inductive approach. RESULTS: The overarching theme, "An uncertain uphill battle against a divergent body and societal ignorance", covers the experiences of living with lipedema and is based on five categories; "Captivated by a disintegrating body", "Face the impairments of a chronic condition", "Experience social exclusion", "Need emotional support to go on" and "Mull over an insecure future". The women felt entrapped within their bodies and experienced social exclusion due to the chronic symptoms and the progressive body shape alteration caused by their illness. Having experienced deficient information on the illness, varying support from other people, and a deteriorating economic situation, the women face an uncertain future. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms and restrictions caused by lipedema affect women's livelihood and future, as there are no indications for disease improvement. Preventive work aimed at reducing health deterioration should be a priority. More research is needed to raise healthcare awareness regarding difficulties experienced by patients with lipedema.

  • BACKGROUND: Lipedema is characterized by the painful abnormal deposition of adipose tissue in the lower limbs and is often misdiagnosed as obesity. Considering the numerous bothersome physical symptoms of lipedema, women with lipedema may have greater disability and emotional problems than women with lifestyle-induced obesity. OBJECTIVES: Our study aims to assess disability, anxiety and depression symptoms in women with lipedema compared to women with overweight/obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Women with lipedema (n = 45, with a mean age of 41 years) and women who are overweight/obese (n = 43, with a mean age of 44.95 years) were asked to complete the following questionnaires: The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS II), Beck's Depression Inventory - II (BDI-II), and The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Despite the higher BMI in the overweight/obesity group, the group with lipedema was more disabled in numerous domains of the WHO-DAS II questionnaire, including Life activities - domestic, work and school responsibilities and Participation in society When the influence of BMI was adjusted, a difference in the domain of Mobility was also present. The study groups did not differ in anxiety and depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that behavioral impairment was the main factor affecting functioning in women with lipedema. Emotional symptoms did not differentiate the study groups. Leg volumes and adipose tissue pain intensity were associated with greater disability in women with lipedema, and should be considered in managing women with this condition and in future research estimating the effectiveness of lipedema treatment.

  • BACKGROUND: Patients with lymphedema and lipedema share physical exam findings that may lead to misdiagnosis. Poor mobility is common in patients with obesity and patients with lymphedema and lipedema. This may constitute a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our objective was to evaluate the association of VTE in obese patients with lymphedema and lipedema. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was searched from 2016 to 2020 to identify hospital admissions of obese female patients with lymphedema and lipedema. Patients were analyzed in the context of presence or absence of VTE while adjusting for complex cluster sampling techniques. Predictors of VTE were accessed by multivariable regression. RESULTS: Lymphedema was identified in 189,985 patients and lipedema in 50,645 patients. VTE was observed in 3.12% (n = 374,210) of patients with obesity. In patients with obesity, VTE was more common in patients with lymphedema than without (2.6% vs 1.6%; p < 0.01). Similarly, VTE was more common in patients with lipedema than without (0.6% vs 0.4%; p < 0.01). After multivariable logistic regression, VTE events in obese patients with lymphedema were higher versus without (OR 1.6; CI 1.08-2.43; p = 0.02). Similarly, VTE events were more common in obese patients with lipedema versus obese patients without lipedema (OR 1.20; CI 1.03-1.41; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In this hypothesis-generating study, lymphedema and lipedema show a positive association with VTE after adjusting for baseline patient characteristics such as obesity, which is a known independent risk factor for VTE. Mechanisms whereby lymphedema and lipedema are associated with VTE should be investigated.

  • We analyzed the medical condition of 360 women affected by lipedema of the lower limbs in stages 1, 2, and 3. The data were assessed for the whole population and compared between different clinical stages, distinguishing between obese and non-obese patients. The most frequent clinical signs were pain when pinching the skin, subcutaneous nodules, and patellar fat pads. The most frequently painful site of the lower limbs was the medial lower third of the thigh. The pain score obtained on lower limb points increased progressively with the clinical stage. In all points evaluated, the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue increased with the clinical stage. Analyzing the data on the lower medial third of the leg and considering only patients with type 3 lipedema, the difference between stages was statistically significant after correction for age and BMI. We found higher levels of C-reactive protein at more severe clinical stages, and the difference was significant after correction for age and BMI between the stages. Overall, the prevalence of alterations of glucose metabolism was 34%, with a progressive increase in prevalence with the clinical stage. The most frequent comorbidities were vitamin D insufficiency, chronic venous disease, allergies, dyslipidemia, headache, and depression of mood. Interestingly, in comparison with the general population, we found higher prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Finally, the clinical stage and the involvement of the upper limbs or obesity suggest a worse clinical, anthropometric, and endocrine–metabolic profile.

  • Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in patients with lipedema and to evaluate the effects of FMS on anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL) in this patient group. Methods: Patients with lipedema were invited to participate in a Survey-Monkey questionnaire (according to inclusion and exclusion criteria) that was announced on the facebook page of the lipedema patient community. The demographic and clinical properties, including age, body mass index (BMI), education, marital status, and types and stage of lipedema, were collected. Presence of fibromyalgia was assessed by the questions based on American College of Rheumatology 2016 FMS diagnostic criteria. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Short Form-12 (SF-12) were used to assess the anxiety and depression, and QoL respectively. The demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as anxiety/depression level and QoL of lipedema patients were evaluated in regard to the presence (Group 1) and absence (Group 2) of FMS. Results: A total of 354 participants with a mean age of 43.18 ± 9.53 years and BMI of 30.61 ± 6.86 were included. The majority of them were married and had university education. Most of the patients had types 1, 2 and commonly stages 1 and 2 lipedema. One hundred twenty-four patients (35%) satisfied FMS criteria. The demographic characteristics except pain intensity were similar between the groups. The mean anxiety and depression scores of Group 1 were significantly higher compared with Group 2 (13.11 ± 4.2 vs. 9.87 ± 4.65, 10.23 ± 3.79 vs. 8.26 ± 4.15, respectively, p < 0.001). The mental and physical subgroup scores of SF-12 (35.37 ± 8.59 vs. 42.55 ± 10.15, 35.27 ± 8.49 vs. 40.38 ± 11.36, respectively) were significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: More than every 3 lipedema patient may have FMS. This comorbidity may increase depression and anxiety, and impair QoL. Therefore, FMS must be kept in mind especially in the assessment of painful lipedema patients to decrease anxiety/depression and enhance the QoL of them.

  • Lipedema is a chronic condition characterized by disproportionate and symmetrical enlargement of adipose tissue, predominantly affecting the lower limbs of women. This study investigated the use of metabolomics in lipedema research, with the objective of identifying complex metabolic disturbances and potential biomarkers for early detection, prognosis, and treatment strategies. The study group (n = 25) comprised women diagnosed with lipedema. The controls were 25 lean women and 25 obese females, both matched for age. In the patients with lipedema, there were notable changes in the metabolite parameters. Specifically, lower levels of histidine and phenylalanine were observed, whereas pyruvic acid was elevated compared with the weight controls. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the diagnostic accuracy of histidine, phenylalanine, and pyruvic acid concentrations in distinguishing between patients with lipedema and those with obesity but without lipedema revealed good diagnostic ability for all parameters, with pyruvic acid being the most promising (area under the curve (AUC): 0.9992). Subgroup analysis within matched body mass index (BMI) ranges (30.0 to 39.9 kg/m2) further revealed that differences in pyruvic acid, phenylalanine, and histidine levels are likely linked to lipedema pathology rather than BMI variations. Changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-6 TG levels and significant reductions in various LDL-2-carried lipids of patients with lipedema, compared with the lean controls, were observed. However, these lipids were similar between the lipedema patients and the obese controls, suggesting that these alterations are related to adiposity. Metabolomics is a valuable tool for investigating lipedema, offering a comprehensive view of metabolic changes and insights into lipedema's underlying mechanisms.

  • Introdução: O lipedema, recentemente introduzido na 11ª revisão da Classificação Internacional de Doenças. Estima-se que metade das pessoas acometidas pelo lipedema, estejam em sobrepeso ou com obesidade, sendo uma associação de comorbidades que dificulta o diagnóstico. O diagnóstico errôneo é preocupante, pois atrasa o tratamento da doença permitindo a sua progressão. Objetivo: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura (RIL) com objetivo de analisar o que se tem construído em pesquisas anteriores relacionadas ao lipedema. Metodologia: A busca dos artigos científicos foram os disponibilizados nos Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). Os artigos constassem os Descritores em Ciências da Saúde (DeCS) com as palavras: lipedema and procedimento and cirurgia and mulher, e que fossem revisados por pares, nas línguas inglesa e portuguesa. a partir da aplicação dos critérios previamente definidos O período de busca foi realizado nos meses de maio a agosto de 2023. Resultados e Discussão: Foram elegíveis 12 artigos. A análise dos artigos encontrados possibilitou a evidente necessidade de conhecimento e clareza no diagnóstico do lipedema. As mulheres são as mais afetadas pela doença. A área afetada pode incluir os quadris, as pernas bilateral e simetricamente. E uma das principais características distintivas do lipedema é a preservação dos pés, o que pode criar um degrau distinto no tornozelo. Assim, a importância do diagnóstico diferencial. O procedimento cirúrgico como tratamento apresentou melhores resultados. Entretanto, a associação de todos os tratamentos sobressaiu na qualidade de melhora dos aspectos do lipedema. Conclusão: Essa revisão apontou para o complexo&nbsp; diagnóstico do lipedema.&nbsp; Esse assunto persiste como um desafio e deve instigar mais pesquisadores na busca para um diagnóstico preciso, opções de tratamento e até mesmo no sentido de prevenção para satisfazer a população assistida, no caso a maioria são as mulheres.&nbsp; A melhor opção indicada pelos estudos analisados foi o tratamento cirúrgico realizado pela lipoaspiração.

  • OBJECTIVE: To quantify and compare associations and relationships between self-rated and tested assessments of mainly mobility-related physical function in different diagnoses. DESIGN: Six longitudinal cohort studies before and after inpatient rehabilitation. PATIENTS: Patients with whiplash-associated disorder (n = 71), low back pain (n = 121), fibromyalgia (n = 84), lipoedema (n = 27), lymphoedema (n = 78), and post-acute coronary syndrome (n = 64). METHODS: Physical function was measured with the self-rated Short-Form 36 Physical functioning (SF-36 PF) and with the tested 6-Min Walk Distance (6MWD) and assessed by correlation coefficients. Across the 6 cohorts, the relationship between the 2 scores was compared using the ratio between them. RESULTS: The correlations between the 2 scores were mostly moderate to strong at baseline (up to r = 0.791), and weak to moderate for the changes to follow-up (up to r = 0.408). The ratios SF-36 PF to 6MWD were 1.143-1.590 at baseline and 0.930-3.310 for the changes, and depended on pain and mental health. CONCLUSION: Moderate to strong cross-sectional and moderate to weak longitudinal correlations were found between the 6MWD and the SF-36 PF. Pain and mental health should be considered when interpreting physical function. For a comprehensive assessment in clinical practice and research, the combination of self-rated and tested physical function measures is recommended.

  • OBJECTIVE: Lipedema is a debilitating chronic condition predominantly affecting women, characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fat in a symmetrical, bilateral pattern in the extremities, often coinciding with hormonal imbalances. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Despite the conjectured role of sex hormones in its etiology, a definitive link has remained elusive. This study explores the case of a patient possessing a mutation deletion within the C-terminal region of Aldo-keto reductases Member C2 (AKR1C2), Ser320PheTer2, that could lead to heightened enzyme activity. A cohort of 19 additional lipedema patients and 2 additional affected family members14 were enrolled in this study. The two additional affected family members are relatives of the patient with the AKR1C1 L213Q variant, which is included in the 19 cohorts and described in literature. RESULTS: Our investigation revealed that AKR1C2 was overexpressed, as quantified by qPCR, in 5 out of 21 (24%) lipedema patients who did not possess mutations in the AKR1C2 gene. Collectively, these findings implicate AKR1C2 in the pathogenesis of lipedema, substantiating its causative role. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the activating mutation in the enzyme or its overexpression is a causative factor in the development of lipedema. Further exploration and replication in diverse populations will bolster our understanding of this significant connection.

  • BACKGROUND: Lipedema, a complex and enigmatic adipose tissue disorder, remains poorly understood despite its significant impact on the patients' quality of life. Genetic investigations have uncovered potential contributors to its pathogenesis, including somatic mutations, which are nonheritable genetic alterations that can play a pivotal role in the development of this disease. AIM: This review aims to elucidate the role of somatic mutations in the etiology of lipedema by examining their implications in adipose tissue biology, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. RESULTS: Studies focusing on leukocyte clones, genetic alterations like TET2 and DNMT3A, and the intricate interplay between adipose tissue and other organs have shed light on the underlying mechanisms driving lipedema. From the study of the scientific literature, mutations to genes correlated to three main pathways could be involved in the somatic development of lipedema: genes related to mitochondrial activity, genes related to localized disorders of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and genes of leukocyte clones. CONCLUSIONS: The insights gained from these diverse studies converge to highlight the complex genetic underpinnings of lipedema and offer potential avenues for therapeutic interventions targeting somatic mutations to alleviate the burden of this condition on affected individuals.

  • BACKGROUND: Mast cells are immune cells that mediate hypersensi-tivity and allergic reactions in the body, secreting histamine and other inflammatory molecules. They have been associated with different inflammatory conditions such as obesity and other adipose tissue di-sorders. Lipedema is a chronic disease characterized by an abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue on the legs and arms, pain, and other symptoms. Mast cells may play a role in the pathology of lipedema. OBJECTIVE: Pilot study to determine levels of histamine and its metabolites in lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsy samples, and to test sodium cromoglycate for the treatment of mast cells in women with lipedema. METHODS: Biopsies from lipedema and control SAT were collected and analyzed histologically for the presence of mast cells. Mass spec-trometry was used to measure the levels of histamine, a key marker of mast cells, and its metabolites in SAT in women with lipedema and controls, and after a group of women with lipedema were administered oral and topical doses of sodium cromoglycate for two weeks. RESULTS: Histological examination of biopsies from lipedema patients confirmed the presence of mast cells. Metabolomic analysis revealed high levels of histamine and its metabolites in samples from women with lipedema compared to controls. Following a two-week treatment period, lipedema tissue samples exhibited reduced levels of histamine, suggesting a reduction of mast cell activity. CONCLUSION: Sodium cromoglycate has the ability to stabilize mast cells and reduce histamine levels in lipedema patients, which could be useful in lowering the symptoms of lipedema.

  • This study aimed to assess the potential benefits of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet on body composition, leg volume, and pain reduction in women with lipedema compared to overweight or women with obesity. The study included 113 female participants, 56 with lipedema and 57 with overweight/obesity (BMI >25 kg/m2) without lipedema. All subjects were prescribed a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet with anti-inflammatory properties to adhere to for a duration of 7 months. Measurements of anthropometry, body weight, composition, and pain (VAS) were conducted at the study’s commencement and conclusion. 52 participants completed the study. Both groups experienced a similar weight reduction, amounting to 12.9% compared to the baseline (−10.8 kg vs. −11.9 kg; p = 0.14, for lipedema and women with overweight/obesity, respectively). The most reduction was in body fat mass. Improvements in various parameters were observed, except for ankle circumferences, which decreased more in the lipedema group. Lipedema participants showed significantly reduced pain levels following the LCHF diet (4.6 ± 2.6 vs 3.0 ± 2.3; ). The LCHF diet holds promise for weight loss, body fat reduction, leg volume management, and pain alleviation in women with lipedema. These findings provide valuable insights into potential therapeutic strategies for lipedema management.

  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence on the efficacy, also considering the anti-inflammatory properties and safety of very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) as a potential treatment for lipedema, particularly in the context of obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Lipedema is a chronic disease characterized by abnormal and painful fat buildup on the legs and/or arms. It is often misdiagnosed as obesity or lymphedema. However, although lipedema and obesity can coexist, unlike obesity, lipedema usually affects the legs and thighs without affecting the feet or hands, and the abnormal deposition of adipose tissue in lipedema is painful. The current lifestyle interventions are often unsuccessful in the management of lipedema. There is no consensus on the most effective nutritional approach for managing lipedema. Recent studies have suggested that VLCKD may be an effective treatment for lipedema, demonstrating that it is also superior to other nutritional approaches such as Mediterranean diet or intermittent fasting. Lipedema is a chronic and debilitating disease characterized by abnormal and painful accumulation of adipose tissue in the legs. VLCKD has been shown to be an effective treatment for lipedema, especially in the context of obesity, due to its anti-inflammatory properties. However, further research is needed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of VLCKD as a treatment for lipedema.

  • BACKGROUND: Lipedema is a chronic inflammatory subcutaneous adipose-rich connective tissue disease affecting millions of women worldwide. Disproportionate fat accumulation on the extremities characterized by heaviness, tenderness, and swelling can affect function, mobility, and quality of life. Treatments include conservative measures and lipedema reduction surgery (LRS). Here, we report lipedema comorbidities and surgical techniques, outcomes measures, and complications after LRS. METHODS: This is a single outpatient clinic retrospective chart review case series of comorbidities and complications in 189 women with lipedema. Bioelectrical impedance analyses, knee kinematics, gait, physical examinations, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, and RAND Short Form-36 questionnaires collected before and after LRS were analyzed for 66 of the 189 women. Hemoglobin levels were measured by transdermal hemoglobin monitor (Masimo noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring; Irvine, Calif.). RESULTS: Common comorbidities in 189 women were hypermobile joints (50.5%), spider/varicose veins (48.6/24.5%), arthritis (29.1%), and hypothyroidism (25.9%). The most common complication in 5.5% of these women after LRS was lightheadedness with a 2-g reduction or more in hemoglobin. After conservative measures and LRS in 66 women, significant improvements (P ≤ 0.0009) were found for: (1) knee flexion (10 degrees); (2) gait; (3) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System T-score (16%); (4) mobility questions: gait velocity, rising from a chair, stair ascent; (5) RAND Short Form-36 scores: physical functioning, energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, social function, general health; (6) and Bioelectrical impedance analyses total and segmental body fat mass. CONCLUSION: LRS provided significant improvements to women with lipedema using direct physical measurements and validated outcome measures, comparable to those seen after total knee replacement.

  • Lipedema is a chronic medical condition characterized by a symmetric buildup of adipose tissue (fat) in the legs and arms. A common but under-recognized disorder, Lipedema may cause pain, swelling, easy bruising, and impaired mobility. During the past decade, Lipedema, which occurs almost exclusively in women, has been demonstrated to be a disease that is distinct from obesity, lymphedema, cellulite, and other adipose conditions. The Lipedema Research Roadmap identifies recommendations to strengthen and grow Lipedema research. It presents a forward-looking summary of gaps in knowledge and opportunities for research and development, sourced from “Lipedema: A Current Understanding of Its Pathology and Natural History” (Lipedema Foundation; preprint, forthcoming), as well as input from authors and advisors. Recommendations are organized into six chapters covering key objectives: fostering the research environment, developing reporting standards and best practices, improving diagnosis, broadening understanding of the biology of the disease, identifying potential treatments, and enhancing epidemiology. The Research Roadmap development process incorporated input from more than 60 stakeholders, including researchers, clinicians, and patients. 24 external reviewers provided more than 1,300 comments and recommended edits.

  • BACKGROUND: National survey data exploring the patient experience with lipedema are lacking. METHODS: We conducted national surveys from 2016 to 2022 of women with lipedema as well as female controls. Surveys collected information on symptomatology, pain, and therapies. We performed logistic regression comparing symptoms among those with lipedema versus controls adjusting for age and BMI. RESULTS: A total of 707 women with lipedema and 216 controls completed the surveys. Those with lipedema had a mean age of 48.6 years and mean BMI of 40.9 kg/m2. Lipedema symptom onset occurred frequently at puberty (48.0%) or pregnancy (41.2%). Compared to controls, women with lipedema were more likely to report leg swelling in heat (odds ratio [OR], 66.82; 95% CI, 33.04-135.12; p < 0.0001), easy bruising (OR, 26.23; 95% CI, 15.58-44.17; p < 0.0001), altered gait (OR, 15.54; 95% CI, 7.58-31.96; p < 0.0001), flu-like symptoms (OR, 12.99; 95% CI, 4.27-39.49; p < 0.0001), joint hypermobility (OR, 12.88; 95% CI, 6.68-24.81; p < 0.0001), cool skin (OR, 12.21; 95% CI, 5.20-28.69; p < 0.0001), varicose veins (OR, 11.29; 95% CI, 6.71-18.99; p < 0.0001), and fatigue (OR, 9.59; 95% CI, 6.10-15.09; p < 0.0001). Additionally, 70.3% had upper arm involvement, 21.2% reported foot swelling, and 16.6% reported foot pain. Most (52.2%) reported no symptom improvement with diet or exercise. Common therapies used included compression therapy (45.0%), gastric bypass (15.7%), and lower-extremity liposuction (14.0%). CONCLUSION: In a large, national, symptom survey, women with lipedema reported excess pain, swelling, and fat in the legs along with numerous symptoms beyond those classically described. Symptom responses to common therapies remain understudied.

  • Background: Lipedema is a chronic and progressive disease. Many complications can occur if the disease is not treated. The most important of these complications is lipedema with secondary lymphedema. There are very few publications about lipedema with secondary lymphedema. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of physical therapy on lower extremity circumference and volume in patients suffering from lipedema with secondary lymphedema. Methods and Results: All patients received pneumatic compression and complex decongestive therapy (CDT). Perometer measurement was made at five distinct points. Fifteen patients were included in the study. It was seen that significant reduction was found in the circumference of three of the five points of measurements performed in the left leg, whereas significant reduction was found in the circumference of four of the five points of measurements performed in the right leg. Also, there was a decrease in the extremity volume in both legs. Conclusion: Combined application of CDT and pneumatic compression in patients suffering from lipedema with secondary lymphedema is an effective treatment method in reducing lower extremity volume and circumference measurement.

  • BACKGROUND: Diagnosing lipedema remains a challenge due to its heterogeneous presentation, co-existing diseases, and the lack of objective diagnostic imaging. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to outline the currently available diagnostic imaging methods to characterize lipedema in the legs along with their diagnostic performance. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. The quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) tool was used for quality assessment. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies describing a total of 1154 patients with lipedema were included for final analysis. Features for lipedema have been defined using ultrasound (increased subcutaneous adipose tissue), lymphoscintigraphy (slowing of the lymphatic flow and a frequent asymmetry between the lower extremities), computed tomography (symmetrical bilateral soft tissue enlargement without either skin thickening or subcutaneous edema), magnetic resonance imaging (increased subcutaneous adipose tissue), MR lymphangiography (enlarged lymphatic vessels up to a diameter of 2 mm), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (fat mass in the legs adjusted for body mass index (BMI) ≥ 0.46 or fat mass in the legs adjusted for total fat mass ≥ 0.384). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic performance of currently available imaging modalities for assessing lipedema is limited. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of each imaging modality. Imaging techniques focusing on the pathogenesis of the disease are needed.

  • Lipedema is a chronic disorder that mainly affects women. It is often misdiagnosed, and its etiology remains unknown. Recent research indicates an accumulation of macrophages and a shift in macrophage polarization in lipedema. One known protein superfamily that contributes to macrophage accumulation and polarization is the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) family. MIF-1 and MIF-2 are ubiquitously expressed and also regulate inflammatory processes in adipose tissue. In this study, the expression of MIF-1, MIF-2 and CD74—a common receptor for both cytokines—was analyzed in tissue samples of 11 lipedema and 11 BMI-matched, age-matched and anatomically matched control patients using qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The mRNA expression of MIF-1 (mean 1.256; SD 0.303; p = 0.0485) and CD74 (mean 1.514; SD 0.397; p = 0.0097) were significantly elevated in lipedema patients, while MIF-2 expression was unaffected (mean 1.004; SD 0.358; p = 0.9718). The IHC analysis corroborated the results for CD74 expression on a cellular level. In conclusion, our results provide first evidence for a potential involvement of the MIF family, presumably via the MIF-1-CD74 axis, in lipedema.

Last update from database: 2/29/24, 8:02 AM (UTC)